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Time domain (delay) effects 01
Introduction - what are time domain (delay) effects?

Level of challenge Easy


Welcome to this introduction to our video tutorials on time domain effects.


Time domain (delay) effects are created by making single or multiple copies of a source sound, delaying the copies in time and then mixing the two together. The primary effects are ..

All of these effects can be created with a simple delay line.


Suggested settings

  Delay time Feedback Modulation
Width Speed
Phasing 0-3ms A little Lots Slow
Flanging 3-13ms Lots Medium Medium
Chorus 13-30ms None A little Medium
ADT 15-35ms None A little A little
Slapback echo 70ms None None None
Conventional delay 70+ms Optional None None



Caption - Delay line

The term "delay line" describes any process in which a source sound is copied and delayed in time. Technologies and techniques include ..

Caption - Reverberation

Reverberation is also a time domain effect but because of its complexity it cannot easily be created with simple delay lines and is therefore considered as a separate category of effect. Whilst Time domain (delay) effects can be created with only a few copies, reverb typically require hundreds or thousands of echoes.


Caption - Echo / delay / reverberation distinction

Echo, delay and reverberation share common properties but differ subtly.


Echo is often defined as individually distinct repeats separated from the original sound by a gap of at least 50-70ms. They occur naturally in the real world and were first simulated electronically in the studio with tape recorders. In the studio the term echo refers to a delay line which simulates the behaviour and character of echoes in nature, including the way in which high harmonic frequencies decay faster than low frequencies.


Reverberation is the combined effect of multiple individual echo reflections, the first of which are usually separated from the source sound by a gap of less than 50ms, but not always.


Delay is a generic term for the technological creation of repeats. A digital delay will sample and repeat, endlessly if necessary, an almost exact duplicate of the original sound.


Caption - Thanks for watching

The script for this video, with accompanying images, can be found at 


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